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|Scandisk Utility from Microsoft|
There are different types of errors on hard disks and is some of them could be able to correct them through Scandisk. ScanDisk is a disk analysis released by Microsoft that checks a drive for errors and corrects any problems that it finds. In DOS, you run ScanDisk by entering scandisk at the prompt and pressing the Enter key. An updated, 32-bit ScanDisk is included with Windows 95, 98 and XP. You can run it from the command line, it is easier to run it as follows: Double-click My Computer. Right-click the drive you want to scan and select Properties. Select the Tools tab. In the Error-checking section, click the Check Now button.
Whenever you shut down computer properly by clicking the Start button and choosing Shut Down, your computer shut down formally. During shut down, the unwanted files are closed, unnecessary files are deleted, and copies of important files such as the system registry files are written to the hard disk. A computer keeps track of the addresses of all files and clusters in a table called the FAT table.
If the power goes off, a program crashes, or you simply turn the computer off without going through the proper shut down procedure, the FAT table may be damaged. Files may become cross-linked, or clusters may be lost or orphaned. In essence, this means that their addresses have not been recorded properly. When this happens, it is essential that the computer be allowed to repair the files and their addresses before files are accessed during normal use.
Windows comes with ScanDisk, a slick little utility that can easily repair this type of damage. It is very important to run ScanDisk immediately after a computer crash or other improper shutdowns. In fact, running this utility is so important that in later versions of Windows 95 and all versions of Windows 98, ScanDisk runs automatically when the computer is restarted after an unauthorized shut down. If your computer starts up with a blue screen that says "ScanDisk is now checking Drive C for errors," it means that the computer was shut down improperly and Windows has automatically begun the ScanDisk operation. In most cases, the computer will do all of the work.
All you have to do is waiting until the process is complete, at which time the computer will proceed right to its normal boot up sequence. Don't be tempted to abort this process. It is important to let the computer complete the ScanDisk and repair any damaged files. Problems like cross-linked files and lost clusters are "logical" problems in the computer's address keeping. A hard disk can also occasionally have physical problems. A physical hardware problem results from a disk's surface being scratched, contaminated, or demagnetized.
A hard disk is divided into sectors; one or more of the physical sectors can be damaged by jarring, magnets, or contaminates such as cigarette ashes. A damaged sector on a hard disk can result in a multitude of computer problems. ScanDisk repairs the errors, and create a log of the ScanDisk session. Thus, it is a good practice to ScanDisk at least once in a week to avoid the corruption of the application and the system files.
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